Hydrogen Therapy in the Treatment of Type 2 DiabetesScientific Research

Effectiveness and safety of hydrogen inhalation in Diabetes Treatment (Cover)

original title: Effectiveness and safety of hydrogen inhalation as an adjunct treatment in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: A retrospective, observational, double-arm, real-life clinical study


Ziyi Zhao1, Hongxiang Ji2, Yunsheng Zhao3, Zeyu Liu1, Ruitao Sun1, Yuquan Li2 and Tongshang Ni4*

1School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
2College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China
3Department of Endocrinology, Qingdao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Qingdao Hiser Hospital), Qingdao, China
4Center of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Department of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China

DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1114221

Published on: 18/01/2023



To analyze the effectiveness and safety of hydrogen inhalation (HI) therapy as an adjunct treatment in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in a real-life clinical setting.


This observational, non-interventional, retrospective, double-arm, 6-month clinical study included T2DM patients receiving conventional anti-diabetes medication with or without HI initiation from 2018 to 2021. Patients were assigned to the HI group or non-HI group (control group) after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The mean change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) after 6 months in different groups was evaluated primarily. The secondary outcome was composed of the mean change of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, lipid profile, and homeostasis model assessment. Logistics regression was performed to evaluate the likelihood of reaching different HbA1c levels after 6-month treatment between the groups. Adverse event (AE) was also evaluated in patients of both groups.


In total, 1088 patients were selected into the analysis. Compared to the control group, subjects in HI group maintained greater improvement in the level of HbA1c (-0.94% vs -0.46%), FPG (-22.7 mg/dL vs -11.7 mg/dL), total cholesterol (-12.9 mg/dL vs -4.4 mg/dL), HOMA-IR (-0.76 vs -0.17) and HOMA-β (8.2% vs 1.98%) with all p< 0.001 post the treatment. Logistics regression revealed that the likelihood of reaching HbA1c< 7%, ≥ 7% to< 8% and > 1% reduction at the follow-up period was higher in the HI group, while patients in the control group were more likely to attain HbA1c ≥ 9%. Patients in HI group was observed a lower incidence of several AEs including hypoglycemia (2.0% vs 6.8%), vomiting (2.6% vs 7.4%), constipation (1.7% vs 4.4%) and giddiness (3.3% vs 6.3%) with significance in comparison to the control group.

Research Conclusion

HI as an adjunct therapy ameliorates glycemic control, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and AE incidence of T2DM patients after 6-month treatment, presenting a noteworthy inspiration to existing clinical diabetic treatment.

Original Publication

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