H2-Enriched Water Modulates Immune Response in T. cruzi-Infected MiceScientific Research

original title: Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water Modulates the Immune Response in BALB/c Mice Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi


Olivia Morales, Juan Jose Mata, Silvia Del C Sanchez, Rodolfo A Ocejo, Lidia Pacheco, Ola L Reyes, Jose Luis Encina, Alberto Fraustro, Sergio Garcia, Minerva Fonseca

DOI: 10.3390/pathogens9110974



Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. The mixed Th1/Th2 immune response is required against Trypanosoma cruzi. Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) has been shown to have germicidal efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOW effectiveness in T. cruzi-infected BALB/c mice clinically, immunologically, and histologically. The severity of the infection was assessed by parasitaemia, general health condition, mortality, mega syndromes, and histological lesions. IgG, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 beta levels were quantified. The EOW administration showed a beneficial effect on parasitaemia, general physical condition, and mortality. High levels of IgG1 at 50 days postinfection were observed. Prophylactic EOW treatment was able to induce a predominantly TH1 immune response based on an IgG2a levels increase at the late acute phase, and a 10-fold increase of INF-gamma in whole acute phase. EOW was able to control the acute phase infection as effectively as benznidazole. Splenomegaly was caused by EOW treatment and lymphadenopathy was stimulated by T. cruzi infection in all groups. Severe tissue damage was not prevented by EOW treatments. Moderate efficacy may be due to immunomodulatory properties and not to a direct toxic effect on the parasite.