H2-ERW Modulates NF-κB/iNOS in U937 CellsScientific Research

original title: New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State


Sara Franceschelli, Daniela Maria Pia Gatta, Mirko Pesce, Alessio Ferrone, Antonia Patruno, Maria Anna Lutiis, Alfredo Grilli, Mario Felaco, Fausto Croce, Lorenza Speranza

DOI: 10.3390/ijms17091461



It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H₂O₂-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H₂O₂ on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.