H2 Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide & Cellular SenescenceScientific Research

original title: Hydrogen Indirectly Suppresses Increases in Hydrogen Peroxide in Cytoplasmic Hydroxyl Radical-Induced Cells and Suppresses Cellular Senescence


Takahiro Sakai, Ryosuke Kurokawa, Shin Hirano, Jun Imai

DOI: 10.3390/ijms20020456



Bacteria inhabiting the human gut metabolize microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MAC) contained in plant fibers and subsequently release metabolic products. Gut bacteria produce hydrogen (H2), which scavenges the hydroxyl radical (•OH). Because H2 diffuses within the cell, it is hypothesized that H2 scavenges cytoplasmic •OH (cyto •OH) and suppresses cellular senescence. However, the mechanisms of cyto •OH-induced cellular senescence and the physiological role of gut bacteria-secreted H2 have not been elucidated. Based on the pyocyanin-stimulated cyto •OH-induced cellular senescence model, the mechanism by which cyto •OH causes cellular senescence was investigated by adding a supersaturated concentration of H2 into the cell culture medium. Cyto •OH-generated lipid peroxide caused glutathione (GSH) and heme shortage, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and induced cellular senescence via the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase serine 1981 (p-ATMser1981)/p53 serine 15 (p-p53ser15)/p21 and phosphorylation of heme-regulated inhibitor (p-HRI)/phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha serine 51 (p-eIF2α)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)/p16 pathways. Further, H2 suppressed increased H2O2 by suppressing cyto •OH-mediated lipid peroxide formation and cellular senescence induction via two pathways. H2 produced by gut bacteria diffuses throughout the body to scavenge cyto •OH in cells. Therefore, it is highly likely that gut bacteria-produced H2 is involved in intracellular maintenance of the redox state, thereby suppressing cellular senescence and individual aging. Hence, H2 produced by intestinal bacteria may be involved in the suppression of aging