H2 Water Induces Novel Alarmin SecretionScientific Research

original title: Acid-electrolyzed functional water induces extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, a possible novel alarmin, secretion from oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines


Masafumi Kusinoki, Eri Sata, Kensuke Nishio, Takayoshi Tanaka, Tetsuya Nishida, Naoyuki Sugano, Shuichi Sato, Masatake Asano

DOI: 10.7150/ijms.26186



Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) secretion was induced in the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC3 cell by acid-electrolyzed functional water (FW) stimulation. Augmented EMMPRIN secretion was not under transcriptional control; rather, it was derived from the intracellular storages. EMMPRIN secretion was also induced under oxidative stress and accompanied by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The molecules released from cells undergoing necrosis are called as alarmins, and the secretion of IL-1α, a typical alarmin, was induced by FW stimulation and oxidative stress. Intracellular localization was examined by cell fractionation. A significant amount of EMMPRIN was localized in the triton X-100 and DNase sensitive fractions; the levels were drastically reduced following FW treatment. The function of the released EMMPRIN was examined using the monocytic cell line THP1. Culture supernatant derived from FW-treated HSC3 cells induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 8, 9, 13, and 14, platelet-derived growth factor, and interleukin-8. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor expression was reduced. Induction of these factors was abolished following eliminating of EMMPRIN by immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that EMMPRIN might be considered as a type of alarmin that transduces danger signals to the surrounding cells.