H2 water therapy for diabetic nephropathyScientific Research

original title: Hydrogen water therapy in histopathological improvement of diabetic nephropathy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats


Olly Indrajani, Ekowati Retnaningtyas, Hendry Santoso, Veronica Verina Setyabudhi

DOI: 10.1063/5.0053002



Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a renal microvascular abnormality resulting from chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The main cause of DN is a chronic condition of hyperglycemia which induces oxidative stress in the microvascular system and causes progressive renal failure. Hydrogen water (HW) shows potential in reducing ROS, and anti-inflammatory. This study aims to develop HW therapy in the improvement of renal histopathology in streptozotocin-induced DM rats. DM induction in rats with a HFD for four weeks then injected with STZ (35 mg/kg BW) intraperitonially. DM rats were divided into 4 groups: DM; DM+Met (DM+metformin dose 45 mg/kg BW); DM+HW; and DM+Met+HW (DM+combination of metformin and HW). Rats were treated with HW or metformin for fourteen days and given orally per day. At the end of the treatment, rats were dissected, and the kidneys were collected. Renal histopathological improvement was evaluated by scoring the H&E-stained kidney sections, then analyzed using ANOVA (p < 0.05). The results showed that HW therapy and a combination of HW with metformin were able to significantly improve renal microvascular damage (p < 0.05) compared to the DM rat group. Hydrogen water has the potential to treat DM chronic complications through renal microvascular repair in STZ-induced diabetic rats.