H2 Water Mitigates Oxidative Stress & Immune Response in Intestinal Epithelial DysfunctionScientific Research

original title: Alkaline Reduced Water Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Innate Immune Response Triggered by Intestinal Epithelial Dysfunction


Jayson M Antonio, Ailyn Fadriquela, Yun Ju Jeong, Cheol Kim, Soo Kim

DOI: 10.3390/pr9101828



Redox imbalance in intestinal epithelial cells is critical in the early phases of intestinal injury. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier can result in immunological imbalance and inflammation, thus leading to intestinal syndromes and associated illnesses. Several antioxidants have been discovered to be beneficial in resolving intestinal barrier dysfunction. Of these antioxidants, the effects of alkaline reduced water (ARW) in oxidative stress of intestinal epithelial cells and its immunokine modulation in vitro is unknown. In this study, we utilized ARW-enriched media to investigate its cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in DLD1 cells. We found that ARW rescued DLD1 from oxidative stress by diluting the influence of H2O2 on oxidative stress-activated MAPK signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. Further, intestinal oxidative stress significantly affects immunokine profiles of Raw 264.7 cells (IL-6, IL-10, MCP, TNF-a, RANTES), which can be reversed by ARW. Collectively, ARW shields intestinal epithelial cells from oxidative stress, reducing the immunological mayhem caused by barrier failure.