Hydrogenized Water’s Impact on Intracellular BiomarkersScientific Research
original title: Effects of Hydrogenized Water on Intracellular Biomarkers for Antioxidants, Glucose Uptake, Insulin Signaling and SIRT 1 and Telomerase ActivityDOI: 10.12691/ajfn-4-6-4
Hydrogen has been shown in several clinical trials to be completely safe without adverse events and there are no warnings in the literature of its toxicity or adverse effects during long-term exposure. Molecular hydrogen has proven useful and convenient as a novel antioxidant and modifier of gene expression in many conditions where oxidative stress and changes in gene expression result in cellular damage. Our intracellular biomarker studies have shown that a hydrogenized water drink formula containing 2.6 ppm dissolved hydrogen was able to penetrate cellular membranes and function as an antioxidant in human liver cells (HePG2) utilizing the Cellular Antioxidant Assay (CAA). This assay uses the protection of a florescent probe as a marker for cellular damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as peroxyl radical, and compares this to the known antioxidant standard, Quercetin. Using this system oxidative damage was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. One ml of hydrogenized water was found to possess antioxidant capacity equivalent to 0.05 µmole of quercetin. When examined in a human colon cell line (Caco-2 cells), hydrogenized water demonstrated a dose-and time-dependent permeability inhibition of an intracellular fluorescent glucose derivative (2-NBDG), indicating decreased glucose uptake. In another study, the impact of hydrogenized water on Akt phosphorylation (Ser473), a biomarker for insulin signaling, was monitored in human skeletal muscle cells. The hydrogenized water treatment markedly elevated the level of phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-aging effects of hydrogenized water were examined utilizing SIRT1 expression as a biomarker of aging in human umbilical cells (HUVECs). Hydrogenized water increased dose-dependent SIRT1 gene expression. Hydrogenized water also increased telomerase activity (an anti-aging biomarker in HUVEC cells) up to 148% when cells were treated with media containing 25% hydrogenized water formula. Increased telomerase activity caused by hydrogenized water may be able to protect telomeres from degradation, suggesting the possible use of hydrogenized water in therapeutic interventions of age-related diseases. These studies show that commercial hydrogenized water improved the levels or activities of a few intracellular biomarkers specific for antioxidant activity, glucose uptake, insulin signaling and SIRT 1 and telomerase activities. Industrial Relevance: The molecular hydrogen used in this study indicates that certain commercial sources of hydrogenized water can provide similar antioxidant and gene expression modifications seen in other sources of molecular hydrogen. The biomarkers evaluated here lend well to hydrogenized water’s biological activity relating to health conditions and aging.